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Electrolytes for

Lithium nickel manganese oxide (LNMO) is a cobalt-free cathode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). LNMO is often considered a cost-effective alternative to layered oxide cathodes because it is cobalt-free and low in nickel.


Due to its three-dimensional spinel structure, it has exceptional characteristics that make it suitable for high-energy and high-power batteries. The lithiation / delithiation of the LNMO cathode takes place at significantly higher potentials compared to layered oxides (≈4.7 V vs. ≈3.8 V vs. Li|Li+), which in combination with a graphite anode leads to an average cell voltage that is approx. 1 V higher.

However, the increased cell voltage also represents one of the biggest hurdles, as the electrolyte is exposed to high stress causing continuous decomposition and capacity fading. The challenge is therefore to apply electrolytes that are compatible with the increased cell voltage of up to 4.9 V. The formation of stable electrolyte/electrode interphases is of great importance to minimize electrolyte degradation and to suppress manganese dissolution from the cathode.

The Solution

Formation: 3 cycles with 0.1C CC charge / 0.1C CC discharge
Cycling rate: 0.5C CCCV charge / 0.5C CC discharge
Temperature: 40 °C
Voltage range: 4.9 – 3.5 V

Applications for supercapacitors

LNMO containing cells are considered for high-energy and high-power applications, such as electric vehicles.

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