Lithium titanate anodes

Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) anodes in lithium-ion batteries

Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) accommodates Li+ ions at an operation potential of ≈1.5 V vs. Li/Li+ with a theoretical specific capacity of 175 mAh g−1 based on the insertion reaction depicted in Scheme 2. The high working potential is within the reductive thermodynamic stability limit of widely used electrolytes. Therefore, in literature LTO is often used as an anode for HV electrolyte solvents, which are not able to form a passivation layer on carbonaceous anodes.