The anode is the negative electrode in a battery. During the discharge process of the battery, oxidation occurs at the anode. The expression discharge is used for the process in which the battery provides electric energy to an external load.
Commercial LIBs mainly use carbonaceous materials, in particular synthetic / artificial graphites and natural graphites as well as amorphous (hard and soft) carbons. Currently, in some commercial cells (for example, Panasonic), small amounts of silicon (mostly as SiOx) are added to the carbon anode to further enhance the energy at electrode level. Also, lithium titanate (LTO, for example, Toshiba’s SCiB) or lithium metal (for example, rechargeable Li-metal polymerbatteries by Bolloré) are utilized in commercial cells.